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P/Invoke Tutorial: Basics (Part 1)

P/Invoke is a way of calling C/C++ functions from a .NET program. It’s very easy to use. This article will cover the basics of using P/Invoke.

Note: This tutorial will focus on Windows and thus use Visual Studio. If you’re developing on another platform or with another IDE, adopting the things in this article should be easy enough.

Project Structure

For this tutorial, we need a small project structure containing two projects:

  • NativeLib : a C++ library project
  • PInvokeTest : a C# console project

To get you started real quick, you can download the project structure here:

If you’re not using Visual Studio 2010 (or don’t want to use the provided zip file), adopt the following settings.

For project NativeLib, go to the project settings and (for all configurations):

  • under C/C++ –> Preprocessor –> Preprocessor Definitions add MYAPI=__declspec(dllexport)
  • under C/C++ –> Advanced: change Calling Convention to __stdcall (/Gz)

For project PInvokeTest:

  • Specify NativeLib as dependency for PInvokeTest. Right click on PInvokeTest and choose Project Dependencies.... Then select NativeLib and hit OK.
  • Change the Output path (under project settings: Build) to ../Debug and ../Release for the different Configurations respectively.

Simple P/Invoke

First, let’s create a native function called print_line().

Add a file called NativeLib.h to NativeLib (or replace it contents):

#ifndef _NATIVELIB_H_
#define _NATIVELIB_H_

#ifndef MYAPI
  #define MYAPI 

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {

MYAPI void print_line(const char* str);

#ifdef __cplusplus

#endif // _NATIVELIB_H_

Then, add NativeLib.cpp:

#include "NativeLib.h"
#include <stdio.h>

MYAPI void print_line(const char* str) {
  printf("%s\n", str);

Now, let’s call this function from the PInvokeTest project. To do this, add the highlighted lines to Program.cs:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices; 
namespace PInvokeTest {
  class Program {
    static void Main(string[] args) {
      print_line("Hello, PInvoke!");    }
    [DllImport("NativeLib.dll")]    private static extern void print_line(string str);  }

The most important lines in this sections are lines 13 and 14. Here we’re specifying the C/C++ function to import into our .NET class. There are a couple of things to note about this:

  • The modifier is static extern. extern means that the function is imported from C/C++. static is necessary because the function has no knowledge about the class Program.
  • The name of the function matches the name of C/C++ function.
  • The type of parameter str is a .NET type (here: string). P/Invoke automatically converts (also called: marshals) data types from .NET to C/C++ and the other way around.
  • The attribute [DllImport] specifies the name of DLL file from which we import the function. Note: DllImport allows you to control almost every aspect of the import, like providing a different .NET method name or specifying the calling convention.

Now compile the project and it should print Hello, PInvoke! to the console.

You can download the complete project here:


There are a couple of things that can go wrong with P/Invoke.

Unable to load DLL

You may get a DllNotFoundException with an error message like “The specified module could not be found.”

DllNotFoundException popup in Visual Studio 2010

As the error message suggests the DLL “NativeLib.dll” could not be found.

The problem here is that Visual Studio doesn’t copy native DLLs to the output directory of .NET projects.

Solution: Change the output directory of the .NET project (PInvokeTest) to match the output directory of the native project (NativeLib). In PInvokeTest‘s project settings under Build choose ../Debug and ../Release for Output path in the respective configuration.

Stack Imbalance

You may get an error saying that a PInvokeStackImbalance was detected.

P/Invoke Stack imbalance popup in Visual Studio 2010

The reason is most likely that the native library uses another calling convention then the .NET project. By default, C/C++ projects use the __cdecl calling convention, whereas [DllImport] uses __stdcall by default.

Solution: Make sure the calling conventions match. Either:

  • Specify the correct calling convention in [DllImport], for example [DllImport("NativeLib.dll", CallingConvention=CallingConvention.Cdecl)]
  • Change the default calling convention for the native project. This is done in the project settings under C/C++ –> Advanced –> Calling Convention.
  • Add the desired calling convention to the desired C/C++ functions, for example: void __stdcall print_line(const char* str). This will only change the calling convention for these functions.

In most cases, it doesn’t matter what calling convention you use. There are some differences, though. You can read more about these differences in the Code Project article Calling Conventions Demystified (Section: Conclusion).


On non-Windows systems you can use Mono to execute .NET applications. If you’re planning on supporting multiple platforms with your .NET code, I suggest you either:

  • Don’t specify a file extension (.dll) in [DllImport], like [DllImport("NativeLib")]. This way the appropriate file name will be chosen automatically. Note, however, that this only works as long as there is no dot in the file name (like in System.Network.dll).
  • Or: Always specify the full Windows file name (i.e. including file extension) and use Mono’s library mapping mechanism to map platform-dependent file names to Windows file names.


Besides P/Invoke, the other way of integrating C/C++ functions is using C++/CLI. Although C++/CLI performs better than P/Invoke it also has several drawbacks:

  • You need to learn a new language (if you only know C#; even if you know C++ as well). See my C++/CLI Cheat Sheet for an overview.
  • C++/CLI is not supported by Mono; so you can use C++/CLI assemblies only on Windows.

Read On

You can find more information about P/Invoke here:


  1. Pingback: Help with using c++ class called with P/Invoke

  2. luca del tongo said: ∞

    Thanks a lot for this clear and coincise post…. The only small add I would suggest is to enable debug of unmanaged code from C#. To enable it the user should go to the “Debug” tab Check “Enable Unmanaged code debugging”. Best Regards

  3. Richard said: ∞

    Good intro. However, some (like me) might wonder why and how the Unicode C# string winds up coming into the DLL as ASCII. Changing the C++ code to use WCHAR and wprintf results in an unusable string. In order to make this work, you have to specify the character set when constructing the DllImportAttribute class, as in

    [DllImportAttribute("NativeLib.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]

  4. Ajay said: ∞

    “The problem here is that Visual Studio doesnÒ€ℒt copy native DLLs to the output directory of .NET projects.”

    This explains why I get cant find dll error for pinvoking used at large codebases.
    For that, you can add a link to the unmanaged DLL as a file in the C# project, and set Build Action to None and Copy to Output Directory to Copy If Newer.

  5. Betelgeuse said: ∞

    Hi, I still have the DllNotFoundException problem. Could you explain me exactly what I need to do to solve that problem?

  6. Pazhani said: ∞

    This is good. Please share us if you examples for Reverse PInvoke.

  7. Pingback: A WPF GUI for a C++ DLL: A Complex PInvoke Construct | Clatter from the Byte Kitchen

  8. Lars said: ∞

    Hope you guyes can help me.
    I simply cant get this stuff working.

    I have some vb code, which is used somewhere else in our organisation.
    Now I need to use that particular dll from c#.

    *** vb code snippet.
    Const lenname = 32
    Const lenstatus = 14

    Type personType
    FirstName As String * lenname
    LastName As String * lenname
    PersonStatus As String * lenstatus
    End Type

    Declare Function GetPersonInfo Lib “ksxn.DLL” Alias “GetPersonInfo” (ByVal a1 As String, a2 As kpersoninfotype,ByVal a3 As String) As Integer
    *** vb code snippet.

    *** My C# code snippet.

    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;

    namespace UnManagedCS
    class Program

    /* GetPersonInfo */
    DllImport(“ksxn.DLL”, SetLastError = true, CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
    public static extern IntPtr GetPersonInfo(string a1, out string a2, out string a3);

    static void Main()
    string a1 = “”;
    string a2 = “”;
    string a3 = “”;

    Console.WriteLine(“GetPersonInfo {0} “, Convert.ToString(GetPersonInfo(a1, out a2, out a3)));
    *** My C# code snippet.

    Thanks in advance.

  9. Armugam said: ∞

    Good Article for the Beginners…

  10. dib said: ∞

    Helpful and handy, thanks for your nice blog,
    Section “Stack Imbalance ” helped me especially. Had no Info what correct calling convention to use . Changed to Cdecl and it worked.

  11. Pingback: P/Invoke and .NET Target Framework – Windows Questions

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