Generic Host (a.k.a. IHostBuilder) - demystified

3 Oct 2022 3 Oct 2022 8 min read .NET C#

.NET (Core) provides a feature called Generic Host - which is also known by its interfaces IHostBuilder and IHost.

This feature runs all modern ASP.NET Core applications and provides features that may also be pretty useful to non-ASP.NET Core applications:

  • Dependency Injection
  • Configurations/Settings/Options
  • Logging

IHostBuilder uses a lot of “magic” that’s hard to understand (or at least it’s hard to understand how it works):

public class Program
    public static void Main(string[] args)

    public static IHostBuilder CreateHostBuilder(string[] args) =>
            .ConfigureWebHostDefaults(webBuilder =>

So, this article’s goal is to explain the inner workings of IHostBuilder.

How to Use the Generic Host 

First, let’s quickly see how you can use the Generic Host:

IHostBuilder hostBuilder = Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args);

// ... configure host (builder) here ...

IHost host = hostBuilder.Build();


NuGet Packages 

If you’re running an ASP.NET Core project, you get access to the Generic Host out-of-the-box.

If not, the interfaces IHostBuilder and IHost are defined in NuGet package Microsoft.Extensions.Hosting.Abstractions.

However the method Host.CreateDefaultBuilder() is defined in NuGet package Microsoft.Extensions.Hosting which gives you the full Generic Host functionality.

The Primary Use Case of Generic Host 

The primary use case of the Generic Host is run services (HTTP or non-HTTP).

Such a service is started when the application starts, and is shut down when the application shuts down.

Because of this, a Generic Host application does not shut down on its own but runs indefinitely until shut down by some external means (e.g. by hitting Ctrl+C).

The services run by the Generic Host must implement IHostedService and are registered with AddHostedService() (here: MyService):

hostBuilder.ConfigureServices(services => services.AddHostedService<MyService>());

These services are automatically created, started and stopped by the Generic Host.

Side note: Conversely, the Generic Host was not designed to be used with interactive console applications (but it can be used with them with some “tricks”).

Deferred Actions - Why it looks so “complicated” 

Almost all methods in IHostBuilder don’t take “concrete” things - they only take delegates.

For example, to register a service, you have to use something like this:

hostBuilder.ConfigureServices(services => services.AddHostedService<MyService>());

The idea behind this design is (most likely) that all the expensive operations (like building a service or reading all configurations) is deferred until IHostBuilder.Build() is called.

The Fundamentals 

IHost/IHostBuilder require two systems to work: dependency injection and configurations.

Additional to these, there are a few “adjacent” systems:

  • The content root
  • The host environment (IHostEnvironment)
  • The host builder context (HostBuilderContext)

Logging is the last building block. It’s completely optional (as far as IHost/IHostBuilder is concerned) but automatically enabled when Host.CreateDefaultBuilder() is used.

These building blocks are visible in the implementation of HostBuilder.Build():


We’ll be looking at each of these in the following sections (however in a different order than in the code).

The Host Environment 

The first thing we need to look at is the host environment (IHostEnvironment). It provides access to some very fundamental pieces of information:

public interface IHostEnvironment
    string EnvironmentName { get; set; }

    string ApplicationName { get; set; }

    string ContentRootPath { get; set; }

    IFileProvider ContentRootFileProvider { get; set; }


  • EnvironmentName is a string that identifies the “environment” the host runs in. Usually this is either "Production", "Staging", or "Development" (as defined in Microsoft.Extensions.Hosting.Environments). If not explicitly specified, it defaults to "Production". Among other things, this property is used to load the appropriate appsettings.<Environment>.json.
  • ApplicationName is only informational - at least it’s not used (as in: read) by HostBuilder itself.
  • ContentRootPath and ContentRootFileProvider define a directory where the application’s content files are loaded from. In ASP.NET Core applications, this defines from where to load static web site files (like .html, .js, .css). It’s also used to find the appsettings.json files.

The values for all these properties are obtained from the host configuration (see below) via a set of predefined keys (HostDefaults):

var hostingEnvironment = new HostingEnvironment()
    ApplicationName = hostConfiguration[HostDefaults.ApplicationKey] ?? Assembly.GetEntryAssembly()?.GetName().Name,
    EnvironmentName = hostConfiguration[HostDefaults.EnvironmentKey] ?? Environments.Production,
    ContentRootPath = hostConfiguration[HostDefaults.ContentRootKey] ?? AppContext.BaseDirectory,

hostingEnvironment.ContentRootFileProvider = new PhysicalFileProvider(hostingEnvironment.ContentRootPath);

You get access to the host environment through the host builder context (see next section).

The Host Builder Context 

The host builder context (HostBuilderContext) can be optionally passed to most delegates registered in the IHostBuilder.

It’s defined like this:

public class HostBuilderContext
    public IHostEnvironment HostingEnvironment { get; set; }

    public IConfiguration Configuration { get; set; }

    public IDictionary<object, object> Properties { get; }


  • HostingEnvironment: the host environment (see previous section)
  • Configuration: first the host configuration, then later the application configuration after it has been built (see below)
  • Properties: same instance as the IHostBuilder.Properties property (can be used for anything not covered by the other two)


The configuration system is the first thing created in HostBuilder.Build().

There are actually two different configurations:

  • The host configuration
  • The application configuration

Each configuration is represented by a IConfigurationRoot object. (They’re actually stored as IConfiguration objects which is possible because IConfigurationRoot inherits IConfiguration.)

Host Configuration 

The host configuration is created first and can be customized through IHostBuilder.ConfigureHostConfiguration(). It’s accessible via HostBuilderContext.Configuration.

The primary goal of the host configuration is to populate the host environment (see above).

When the host builder is created by just using new HostBuilder(), the host configuration is empty by default. However, if you use Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(), two host configurations are added:

// Set the ContentRoot to the current directory
// Via: builder.UseContentRoot(Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())
hostBuilder.ConfigureHostConfiguration(configBuilder =>
        new KeyValuePair<string, string>(HostDefaults.ContentRootKey, Directory.GetCurrentDirectory())

// Enable configuration providers: environment variables and command line
hostBuilder.ConfigureHostConfiguration(configBuilder =>
    configBuilder.AddEnvironmentVariables(prefix: "DOTNET_");
    if (args is { Length: > 0 })

This means the host configuration has access to:

  • the content root
  • and any configuration value specified either
    • through an environment variable (whose name starts with DOTNET_)
    • or specified on the command line

This especially means that the host configuration has no access to the appsettings.json or any other configuration provider (by default; unless it’s registered via IHostBuilder.ConfigureHostConfiguration()).

Note: The host configuration is only used while creating the application configuration (i.e. within delegates registered via IHostBuilder.ConfigureAppConfiguration(); see next section). After that, the application configuration replaces the host configuration (in HostBuilderContext.Configuration).

Application Configuration 

The application configuration is created second - directly after the host builder context (see above) has been created - and can be customized through IHostBuilder.ConfigureAppConfiguration().

It inherits the host configuration (i.e. its values/configuration providers). Once it has been built, it replaces HostBuilderContext.Configuration (which before contained the host configuration).

If new HostBuilder() was used to create the host builder, no additional configuration providers are added.

If Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args) was used to create the host builder, the default application configuration is defined like this:

hostBuilder.ConfigureAppConfiguration((hostingContext, configBuilder) =>
    IHostEnvironment env = hostingContext.HostingEnvironment;
    bool reloadOnChange = hostingContext.Configuration.GetValue("hostBuilder:reloadConfigOnChange", defaultValue: true);

    configBuilder.AddJsonFile("appsettings.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: reloadOnChange)
                 .AddJsonFile($"appsettings.{env.EnvironmentName}.json", optional: true, reloadOnChange: reloadOnChange);

    if (env.IsDevelopment() && env.ApplicationName is { Length: > 0 })
        var appAssembly = Assembly.Load(new AssemblyName(env.ApplicationName));
        configBuilder.AddUserSecrets(appAssembly, optional: true, reloadOnChange: reloadOnChange);


    if (args is { Length: > 0 })

I.e. the following configuration providers will be used:

  • appsettings.json and appsettings.<EnvironmentName>.json
  • User secrets when the environment is "Development"
  • Environment variables (this time without prefix - unlike with the host configuration)
  • The command line arguments

Note that the command line arguments are “re-registered” here so that they can overwrite configurations from the appsettings.json files.

Dependency Injection 

The last component created in IHostBuilder.Build() is the dependency injection system.

It’s registered via IHostBuilder.UseServiceProviderFactory() and represented by the IServiceProviderFactory<TContainerBuilder> interface:

namespace Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;

public interface IServiceProviderFactory<TContainerBuilder> where TContainerBuilder : notnull
    TContainerBuilder CreateBuilder(IServiceCollection services);

    IServiceProvider CreateServiceProvider(TContainerBuilder containerBuilder);

The CreateBuilder() method wraps/converts the IServiceCollection into an instance of TContainerBuilder. This type is dependent on the dependency injection framework being used.

The CreateServiceProvider() takes the return value of CreateBuilder() and converts it into an implementation of IServiceProvider.

Note: By default, .NET’s built-in dependency injection framework is used - see below.

The IHostBuilder.Build() method uses this interface basically like this:

public IHost Build()
    IServiceCollection services = new ServiceCollection();

    // Adds some default services here.

    // These actions are registered via "IHostBuilder.ConfigureServices()".
    foreach (var configureServicesAction in _configureServicesActions)

    TContainerBuilder containerBuilder = _serviceProviderFactory.CreateBuilder(services);

    // The container actions are registered via "IHostBuilder.ConfigureContainer<TContainerBuilder>()".
    foreach (var containerAction in _configureContainerActions)

    // "_appServices" is of type "IServiceProvider"
    _appServices = _serviceProviderFactory.CreateServiceProvider(containerBuilder);

    return _appServices.GetRequiredService<IHost>();

Note: The actual implementation is a little bit more complicated because it can’t use TContainerBuilder directly.

Note 2: The implementation always creates the services variable as ServiceCollection. This means that IServiceCollection just exists to have a clean interface for consumption. But it’s not intended to be replaced with a different implementation (at least not when using HostBuilder).

The Default Dependency Injection Framework 

.NET comes with a built-in dependency injection framework that’s used by default by any HostBuilder instance (unless replaced with a call to IHostBuilder.UseServiceProviderFactory()).

The factory for the built-in dependency injection framework (DefaultServiceProviderFactory) is basically just this (note that TContainerBuilder is simply IServiceCollection):

public class DefaultServiceProviderFactory : IServiceProviderFactory<IServiceCollection>
    public IServiceCollection CreateBuilder(IServiceCollection services)
        return services; // "No op"

    public IServiceProvider CreateServiceProvider(IServiceCollection containerBuilder)
        return containerBuilder.BuildServiceProvider(); // BuildServiceProvider() = Use built-in DI framework